Staphylococcus lugdunensis

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Staphylococcus lugdunensis
Scientific classification edit
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: "Firmicutes"
Class: Bacilli
Order: Bacillales
Family: Staphylococcaceae
Genus: Staphylococcus
Species:
S. lugdunensis
Binomial name
Staphylococcus lugdunensis
Freney et al. 1988

Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative member of the genus Staphylococcus,[1] consisting of Gram-positive bacteria with spherical cells that appear in clusters.[2]

History[edit]

It was first described in 1988 after being differentiated through DNA analysis.[3] Its name comes from Lugdunum, the Latin name for Lyon, France, where the organism was first isolated.[3]

Description[edit]

Colonies of S. lugdunensis are usually hemolytic, sticky, yellow or tan, and about 2–4 mm in diameter after a 48-hour incubation. They also can have a characteristic sweet, hay-like odor.[citation needed] S. lugdunensis may produce a bound coagulase (that is, the enzyme is bound to the cells), a property it shares with S. aureus, but unlike S. aureus, it does not produce a free coagulase. In the laboratory, it can give a positive slide-coagulase test but a negative tube-coagulase test. It is fairly easy to identify because, unlike the great majority of staphylococci, it decarboxylates ornithine and is positive for pyrrolidonyl arylamidase.[4]

In the past, it was frequently misidentified as S. hominis, S. aureus, or other species. It occurs as a commensal on human skin, but has been recorded as a cause of serious human infections,[5][6] such as osteomyelitis, arthritis,[7] septicaemia, wound infections,[8] and aggressive endocarditis.[9]

S. lugdunensis is generally very susceptible to antistaphylococcal antibiotics, but increasing penicillin resistance has been reported.[10]

Acute postoperative endophthalmitis[edit]

Acute postoperative endophthalmitis caused by S. lugdunensis is infrequently reported in clinical studies. Five cases of acute postcataract surgery endophthalmitis were taken from a multicenter prospective study conducted in four university-affiliated hospitals in France (2004 to 2005). These cases were characterized by severe ocular inflammation occurring with a mean delay of 7.6 days after cataract surgery, severe visual loss (hand motions or less in three cases), and dense infiltration of the vitreous. Each of these patients was initially treated by using a standard protocol with intravitreal (vancomycin and ceftazidime), systemic, and topical antibiotics. Given the severity of the endophthalmitis, though bacteria were sensitive to intravitreal antibiotics, pars plana vitrectomy was needed in four cases. The final visual prognosis was complicated by severe retinal detachment in three cases. The microbiological diagnosis was reached by using conventional cultures with specific biochemical tests and eubacterial PCR amplification followed by direct sequencing.[11]

Clinical features[edit]

Staphylococcus lugdunensis has been associated with a wide variety of infections, including cardiovascular infections (severe native and prosthetic valve endocarditis, myocarditis, and infected myxoma), empyema, osteomyelitis and prosthetic/native joints infections, skin and soft-tissue infections (furuncles, cellulitis, and abscesses), central nervous infections, peritonitis, endocephalitis, and urinary tract infections.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chu, Vivian H. "MD, MHS". Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  2. ^ Manica L, Cohen P (11 October 2017). "Staphylococcus lugdunensis Infections of the Skin and Soft Tissue: A Case Series and Review". Journal of Dermatology and Therapy. 7 (4): 555–562. doi:10.1007/s13555-017-0202-5. PMC 5698201. PMID 29022273.
  3. ^ a b Freney, Jean; Brun, Yvonne; Bes, Michele; Meugnier, Helene; Grimont, Francine; Grimont, Patrick A.D.; Nervi, Chantal; Fleurette, Jean (April 1933). "Staphylococcus lugdunensis sp. nov. and Staphylococcus schleiferi sp. nov., Two Species from Human Clinical Specimens" (PDF). International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 38 (2): 168–172. doi:10.1099/00207713-38-2-168.
  4. ^ Shah, Neel B.; Osmon, Douglas R.; Fadel, Hind; Patel, Robin; Kohner, Peggy C.; Steckelberg, James M.; Mabry, Tad; Berbari, Elie F. (1 May 2010). "Laboratory and Clinical Characteristics of Staphylococcus lugdunensis Prosthetic Joint Infections". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 48 (5): 1600–1603. doi:10.1128/JCM.01769-09. ISSN 0095-1137. PMC 2863876. PMID 20181900.
  5. ^ Klotchko, A.; Wallace, M. R.; Licitra, C.; Sieger, B. (2011). "Staphylococcus lugdunensis". Southern Medical Journal. 104 (7): 509–514. doi:10.1097/SMJ.0b013e31821e91b1. PMID 21886051. S2CID 3495502.
  6. ^ Babu, E.; Oropello, J. (2011). "Staphylococcus lugdunensis: The coagulase-negative staphylococcus you don't want to ignore". Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 9 (10): 901–907. doi:10.1586/eri.11.110. PMID 21973302. S2CID 207218243.
  7. ^ Mei-Dan, O.; Mann, G.; Steinbacher, G.; Ballester, S. J.; Cugat, R. B.; Alvarez, P. D. (2007). "Septic arthritis with Staphylococcus lugdunensis following arthroscopic ACL revision with BPTB allograft". Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. 16 (1): 15–18. doi:10.1007/s00167-007-0379-8. PMID 17684731. S2CID 268396.
  8. ^ Papapetropoulos, N.; Papapetropoulou, M.; Vantarakis, A. (2012). "Abscesses and wound infections due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis: Report of 16 cases". Infection. 41 (2): 525–528. doi:10.1007/s15010-012-0381-z. PMID 23242962. S2CID 26078840.
  9. ^ Liu, P. Y.; Huang, Y. F.; Tang, C. W.; Chen, Y. Y.; Hsieh, K. S.; Ger, L. P.; Chen, Y. S.; Liu, Y. C. (2010). "Staphylococcus lugdunensis Infective Endocarditis: A Literature Review and Analysis of Risk Factors". Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection. 43 (6): 478–484. doi:10.1016/S1684-1182(10)60074-6. PMID 21195974.
  10. ^ Taha, Lana; Stegger, Marc; Söderquist, Bo (August 2019). "Staphylococcus lugdunensis: antimicrobial susceptibility and optimal treatment options". European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. 38 (8): 1449–1455. doi:10.1007/s10096-019-03571-6. PMC 6647525. PMID 31144243.
  11. ^ "Endophthalmitis". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 19 July 2021.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]